Digestion and Absorption Introduction All the life forms act as open system that incessantly exchange energy and matter with their surroundings to sustain the state of ‘life’. The autotrophs convert carbon dioxide into organic molecules (simple carbohydrates like glucose) by harvesting the energy of solar radiation (photoautotrophs) or chemical redox reactions (chemoautotrophs). Thus, photoautotrophs (photosynthesizing organism like plants, algae, cyanobacteria, … Read more
Cell Structure and Functions 1. The Cell Theory Almost all the physical, physiological, metabolic and other activities of life (like glycolysis, TCA, photosynthesis, replication, transcription, translation, respiration, etc.) of a (cellular) living organisms (excluding viruses) occur inside the cells irrespective of the unicellularity or multicellularity of the organism. The cell structure and functions greatly varies among the three domains of … Read more
The breakdown of glucose (and, other 6C carbohydrates) into two molecules of pyruvate is called glycolysis. The anaerobic respiration (fermentation) pathways may serve as the sole source of energy in many obligate anaerobic heterotrophs. These fermentation pathways are also of great significance for the survival of their host cells under hypoxic and anaerobic conditions in facultative and aerobic organisms.
Introduction: Memorizing all the twenty standard amino acids and the genetic code dictionary is of great advantages when it comes to take up competitive exams besides improving the normal learning curve in the related topics. These two interdependent learning features may help solve many questions related to predicting some features of the wild type and mutated peptides (or, protein), effects … Read more
Beer law or Beer-Lambert’s law states that the absorbance of a solution is proportional to its concentration and pathlength. Mathematically,
Absorbance, A = e C L
And, A = e C L – Equation 1
e = absorptivity at specified wavelength and temperature (M-1cm-1)
L = path length (in cm)
C = molar concentration of the solute
Calculate Charge & pI of Amino acids,
Peptides and other Molecules. The modified Henderson-Hasselbalch equations derived in the next sections are used to calculate the exact charge on any weakly acidic or basic group. It is also an excellent tool to mathematically determine the isoelectric pH (pI) of amino acids, peptides, drugs, pH indicators or any other molecule having at least one acidic and basic group.